천안콜걸↘24시출장샵♥천안산본 마사지‹천안한물간 연예인 안마방›╋【천안조건 카톡】┰천안마사지 레전드◑천안평택 마사지♀천안마사지 tumblr⇩천안안마방 사정▧천안안마방 오피

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

대전출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

천안콜걸タ출장부르는법☀천안산본 마사지‹천안마사지 3만원›✡【천안안마방 가는 법】♥천안서양 마사지 야동⇖천안근육통 마사지➻천안필승 안마방↺천안안마방 무한➴천안무한샷 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 단양영천 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

천안콜걸﹌예약✉천안산본 마사지‹천안노량진 안마방›↹【천안일산 모텔】⇐천안마사지 근육☢천안안동 마사지»천안안면 비대칭 마사지△천안신도림 마사지➻천안궐동 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

천안콜걸❂예약금없는출장샵◐천안산본 마사지‹천안안마›↳【천안시각장애인 마사지】➶천안호치민 리버티 마사지♪ 천안마사지 앱⚘천안잠실 마사지ト천안여수 안마방┸천안길동 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

천안콜걸⇣예약㊣천안산본 마사지‹천안조치원 마사지›╩【천안성장판 마사지】↔천안낙성대 마사지♪천안여교사 마사지▶천안마사지 포르노⇘천안안마방 도촬├천안안산 줄리엣 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 영덕만남 카톡 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

천안콜걸◦24시출장샵☁천안산본 마사지‹천안천호 안마방›┘【천안태국 에스코트 걸】√천안쉼터 안마방╰천안죽전 안마방⇞천안대전 모텔 추천▄천안안마방 전화╜천안문정동 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

천안콜걸천안안마방 하드

  • 파주동두천 마사지
  • 천안양평 마사지
  • 천안콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    천안콜걸♀예약✌천안산본 마사지‹천안크리스마스 안마방›▒【천안신림역 안마방】┎천안지압 나무위키↕천안남양주 안마방┌천안마사지 출장π천안마사지 구분↛천안사이판 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 평택여성전용 마사지 후기 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대전출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    원주출장샵
    창원시각장애인 마사지 서울출장안마 남양주장 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 바카라사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    천안콜걸⊿출장부르는법♐천안산본 마사지‹천안타이 마사지 가격›┖【천안인천 안마방 후기】┨천안태국 마사지»천안군산 모텔 추천╋천안출장◑천안서면 마사지☰천안고잔동 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 경상북도수유역 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    천안콜걸↺예약금없는출장샵☣천안산본 마사지‹천안산본 마사지›➷【천안신천 마사지】▌천안남친 안마방β천안지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지⇔천안마사지방┋천안구래동 마사지├천안커플 마사지 방법

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    계룡안마방 보빨
    밀양일본 마사지 야동 평택출장샵 고흥서울출장안마
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    천안콜걸▩출장부르는법∷천안산본 마사지‹천안마곡 마사지›◆【천안전립선 마사지 느낌】◄천안안마방 아다➨천안안마방 서비스┗천안베트남 마사지 가격”천안목포 모텔 추천╊천안익산 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장샵 .

    천안콜걸√출장부르는법┗천안산본 마사지‹천안아주대 안마방›┳【천안안마방 수원】↱천안수내역 마사지➧천안안마방 입싸υ천안모텔 아가씨♜천안신천 모텔 추천↘천안강남 안마방 가격

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 마산야동 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    천안콜걸╨출장부르는법κ천안산본 마사지‹천안안마방 사까시›0【천안장 마사지】┌천안감성마사지란♪천안태국 안마방┘천안미아 안마방╣천안폼롤러 마사지ღ천안영화 히든 토렌트

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    천안콜걸⇅출장부르는법↕천안산본 마사지‹천안강원랜드 근처 마사지›▶【천안구로 마사지】⇩천안쥬니공주 안마방フ천안안마방 오랄┦천안대구 안마방 후기◇천안마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻☆천안안동 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 포항해운대 모텔 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The tongyanglife.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 고양타이마사지 꿀팁 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 수원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    천안콜걸ν예약▣천안산본 마사지‹천안은평구 마사지›➹【천안자전거 안마방】✍천안방이동 여관ル천안마사지 하드♂천안안마방 아쿠아⇛천안태국 에스코트 비용✍천안지행 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 대전출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 부산출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and lemondeacademy.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    천안콜걸✿예약금없는출장샵ⓥ천안산본 마사지‹천안야몽 마사지›☀【천안안마방 마사지】ヘ천안별내 안마방┷천안전주 모텔 가격↺천안한국 마사지♨천안노량진 안마방☭천안노량진 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    원주무거동 출장
    원주출장샵 철원안마방 69 원주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    천안콜걸☃출장부르는법┒천안산본 마사지‹천안대전 여관›✣【천안태국 아로마 마사지】↶천안의정부 모텔 가격❤천안제기동 안마방◐천안안마방 69ェ천안안마방 vs 오피✌천안삼계 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.천안콜걸천안안마방 카드◥천안안마방 아다┕【천안마사지 단속 시간】천안하남 마사지☊천안선입금 없는 출장 만남§천안김해 출장 샵χ천안칠곡 마사지┲카지노사이트예약천안마사지 품번☜천안거제도 안마방☭‹천안구리 모텔 추천›천안압구정 마사지➻천안안마방 태국╗천안속초 모텔 추천➨천안광명 안마방δ천안콜걸봉화안마방 지루천안안마방 물다이 몰카╇천안출장 카톡┫{천안귀두 마사지}천안답십리 안마방☁천안구디 안마방◇천안평택역 마사지☂천안김원중 안마방▷천안아산 안마방✿천안일산 모텔♚<천안궐동 안마방>천안연신내 안마방☊천안출장여대생⇡천안응암 마사지£천안마사지 일본◑천안조건 만남⇔천안포항 타이 마사지↼﹛천안다크서클 없애는 마사지﹜천안사각턱 마사지↧천안새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트❈천안다방 티켓 썰♨천안강남역 마사지❤천안석계 마사지┹천안마사지 pornネ「천안안마방 porn」천안여성전용 마사지 후기▄천안안마방 초이스 torrent━천안출장 마사지█천안경주 동천동 마사지┈출장부르는법양양안마방 검색출장부르는법천안비염 마사지┏천안서산 마사지⇉<천안마사지 볼>천안중앙동 안마방♥천안신도림 마사지↙천안안마방 초이스.mp4◎천안광주 여관↰천안콜걸천안콜걸울산출장샵천안안마방 잠천안광주 대딸방천안방콕 마사지천안구글재펜천안콜걸천안출장서비스보장▦천안마사지 샤워기☢【천안에이미 av】천안서산시 안마방╒천안사상 안마방♦천안안마방 가격╝천안천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ]청주에가오 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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